birth control, additionally referred to as birth control, and fertility control, is a way or tool used to prevent being pregnant. Birth control has been used in view that historic instances, but powerful and safe birth control strategies most effective became available inside the twentieth century. Making plans, offering, and using birth control is known as circle of relatives making plans. Some cultures restriction or discourage get entry to birth control because they bear in mind it morally, religiously, or politically undesirable. The time period birth control is a piece of a misnomer as abortion isn’t always often taken into consideration below the time period.

 The arena health enterprise and the USA facilities for disorder control and Prevention provide steerage at the protection of contraceptive strategies in ladies with sure clinical situations. The only contraceptive strategies are sterilization by using vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for ladies, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and implantable contraceptive strategies.

This is followed by using hormone- primarily based strategies, along with oral drugs, patches, vaginal earrings, and injections. Much less powerful strategies consist of physical boundaries including condoms, diaphragms, and contraceptive sponges, in addition to fertility control strategies. The least powerful strategies are spermicides and abstinence from the man before ejaculation… Sterilization, even as tremendously powerful, isn’t always generally reversible; all other strategies are reversible, most immediately upon discontinuation. Safe intercourse practices, including using male or female condoms, can also help prevent sexually transmitted infections.

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Other contraceptive strategies do not shield in opposition to sexually transmitted illnesses. Emergency birth control can prevent being pregnant if taken within 72 to one hundred twenty hours of unprotected intercourse. Some argue that no intercourse is likewise a shape of birth control, but abstinence- most effective intercourse training can increase teen pregnancies if provided without birth control training due to non-compliance. Teenage pregnancies are at improved risk of bad effects.

Complete intercourse training and get entry to contraceptive strategies reduce the rate of undesirable pregnancies in this age institution. In view that implants, IUDs or vaginal earrings are greater a hit in reducing being pregnant costs in teenagers. After giving birth, a female who isn’t always completely breastfeeding can end up pregnant once more after four to six weeks.

Some birth control strategies can be commenced immediately after birth, others require an delay of up to six months. In lactating ladies, progestin- most effective strategies are favored over combined oral contraceptives. In ladies who have reached menopause, it is encouraged that birth control be continued for a 12 months after the last period.

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Around 222 million ladies in developing countries who want to keep away from being pregnant do not use present day contraceptive methods. Contraceptive use in developing countries has reduced the number of deaths throughout or across the time of being pregnant by forty% (about 270,000 deaths were avoided in 2008) and could save you 70% if all contraceptive desires were met. By increasing the time among pregnancies, contraception can enhance exertions consequences in person ladies and the survival of their children.

 Within the developing global, ladies’ earnings, wealth and weight, and their children’s schooling and health are enhancing via higher access to delivery control. Delivery control increases monetary increase due to the fact there are fewer dependent children, more ladies participate within the exertions market, and less use of less commonplace methods of delivery control, such as barrier methods, hormonal contraception, intrauterine devices (IUD), sterilization, and behavioral methods.

They are used earlier than or throughout intercourse, while emergency contraceptives are effective as much as five days after intercourse. Efficacy is commonly expressed as an percent of ladies conceiving within the first yr the usage of an given approach and sometimes as an entire life failure charge for high- performance methods consisting of B. the tubal ligation. The handiest methods are those that work for a long time and do not require constant visits to the doctor.

Surgical sterilization, implantable hormones, and intrauterine devices all have failure rates of less than 1% within the first yr. Hormonal contraceptive tablets, vaginal patches or earrings, and the lactation amenorrhea approach (LAM) when strictly followed also can fail within the first yr. (or 6 months for LAM) with failure rates of less than 1%. With traditional utilization, first- yr. failure rates are appreciably high at nine% due to inconsistent utilization.

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different methods consisting of condoms, diaphragms and spermicides, even when used perfectly, have failure charge within the first yr. the Yankee Academy of Pediatrics recommends lengthy- appearing reversible contraception because the first desire for young human beings.[30] even though all delivery control methods have a few capacity facet results, the danger is less than that of being pregnant.

After discontinuing or eliminating many oral contraceptive methods, IUDs, implants, and injections, the subsequent- yr. being pregnant charge is similar to for those not the usage of delivery control. In human beings with precise health problems, positive types of contraception may additionally require similarly investigation.

For healthy ladies, many delivery control methods ought to not require a doctor’s evaluation, such as delivery control tablets, injectable or implantable contraceptives, and condoms. For instance, a pelvic exam, breast exam, or blood check earlier than starting delivery control. Tablets do not appear to have an effect on effects. In 2009, the arena health corporation (WHO) published a detailed listing of clinical eligibility standards for every type of delivery control.

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Hormonal Barrier

Hormonal delivery control is available in a spread of forms, inclusive of oral capsules, implants beneath the pores and skin, injections, patches, IUDs, and a vaginal ring. They are presently handiest available for girls, despite the fact that male hormonal contraceptives were and are being clinically examined.

There are two types of oral contraceptives, blended oral contraceptives (with estrogen and progestogen) and progestogen- handiest capsules (sometimes referred to as manifolds).If is taken at some stage in pregnancy, it does not boom the risk of miscarriage or cause delivery defects. Each types of delivery control capsules save you fertilization in particular by using inhibiting ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus. They also can adjust the lining of the uterus, lowering implantation. Their effectiveness depends on the person’s adherence to the pill consumption.

Blended hormonal contraceptives are related to a slightly multiplied risk of venous and arterial blood clots. Venous clots boom from a mean of 2. 8 to nine. 8 according to 10,000 girls according to yr. that is even lower than at some stage in pregnancy. because of this risk, they are not endorsed for girls over the age of 35 who hold to smoke.[ forty three] because of the multiplied risk, they are included in decision-making tools such as the sprint rating and the PERC rule, that are used to predict bleeding risk. Clot.

Blood clots and can be used by girls with an history of blood clots within the veins. In sufferers with a history of arterial blood clots, an non-hormonal method of birth control or an progestogen- handiest method, apart from the injectable model, must be used. Progestogen- handiest capsules can improve menstrual cramps and can be used by breastfeeding girls as they do not have an effect on milk production.

Abnormal bleeding can occur with progestin- handiest strategies, and some user’s record not having their periods. The progestogens drospirenone and desogestrel limit androgenic aspect consequences but boom the risk of blood clots and are therefore not the first preference. The failure charge with best use within the first yr of the injectable progestogen is zero.2%; the standard failure charge on first use.

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Pasteurization

Current intrauterine gadgets (IUDs) are small gadgets, often T- fashioned, containing copper or levonorgestrel which are inserted into the uterus. They’re a protracted- acting shape of reversible start manipulate, which might be the only kinds of reversible start manipulate.  Failure rates for the copper-containing IUD are around zero. Eight%, whilst the levonorgestrel IUD is zero.2% at the first 12 months of use.[ sixty three] among contraceptives, those, together with contraceptive implants, lead to the best stage of person satisfaction.

 As of 2007, IUDs are the maximum broadly used shape of reversible birth control with extra than 180 million customers global. Evidence supports efficacy and safety in youngsters and in those who’ve and have now not had kids before. IUDs do now not have an effect on lactation and can be inserted straight away after start. They can also be used straight away after a abortion. as soon as they’re removed, fertility will return to normal straight away, even after prolonged use. Whilst copper IUDs can boom menstrual bleeding and cause extra painful cramps, hormonal IUDs can lessen menstrual bleeding or stop menstruation altogether. Cramps can be treated with pain relievers which includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory tablets.

Different feasible headaches are expulsion (2- 5%) and, rarely, perforation of the uterus (much less than zero.7%). a preceding version of IUD (the Dalkon defend) was associated with an elevated danger of pelvic inflammatory sickness, but, the danger is unaffected in current models in patients without sexually transmitted infections at the time of introduction. IUDs appear to decrease the danger of ovarian most cancers. Surgical sterilization is available inside the shape of tubal ligation for girls and vasectomy for men. Tubal ligation lowers the danger of ovarian most cancers. Short- time period headaches are twenty instances much less commonplace with vasectomy than with tubal ligation.

After a vasectomy, you can experience swelling and pain inside the scrotum, which commonly goes away within per week or. Chronic scrotal pain associated with impairment of excellent of existence takes place in approximately 12% of guys after vasectomy. With the tubal ligature, headaches arise in 1 to 2 percent of methods, with extreme headaches commonly due to anesthesia. No technique offers protection against sexually transmitted infections. Salpingectomy is likewise on occasion used for lady sterilization. This choice can cause regret in some women and men.

approximately 6% of girls who underwent tubal ligation after age 30 regret their choice, in comparison to twenty-24% of girls who have been spayed within an 12 months of delivery and before their thirtieth birthday, and 6% of formerly spayed nulliparous girls the age of 30In comparison, probable much less than 5% of guys regret an sterilization. Men who’re more likely to regret sterilization are younger, have small or no kids, or stay in risky marriages. IN a survey of start dad and mom, nine% said they didn’t. Have had kids if they could once more.

  • Abstinence
  • Withdrawal
  • Fertility awareness
  • Behavioral

Behavioral techniques consist of regulating the timing or nature of sex to save you sperm from getting into the female reproductive tract, either collectively or whilst a ovum is gift. With perfect software, the failure charge inside the first yr. may be around three. 4%; but, with abuse, first- yr. failure prices can technique. Techniques of elevating focus about fertility consist of determining the most fertile days of the menstrual cycle and keeping off unprotected intercourse.

Strategies for determining fertility consist of tracking basal body temperature, cervical secretion, or cycle day. They have got traditional first- yr failure prices of 24%; the failure prices inside the first yr. with perfect software depend on the technique used and range from 0. 4% to five%. At three.6% of couples. If its miles based on both the basal body temperature and any other most important sign, the technique is called Symptothermal.

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Medical trials of the Symptothermal technique have said failure prices inside the first yr. of 20sic and 0. 4% with perfect software. Numerous fertility tracking apps were to be had on account that 2016, but they’re designed greater to assist those seeking to conceive than to save you being pregnant.

Withdrawal (additionally called coitus interrupts) is the exercise of finishing sex (“pulling out”) before ejaculation. The primary danger of the withdrawal technique is that the person will now not be capable of carry out the maneuver effectively or in a well-timed manner. First- yr failure prices range from 4% with perfect usage to 22% with traditional usage. A few scientific specialists do now not remember it a delivery control technique. .

There may be little data at the sperm content of the pre ejaculatory fluid. despite the fact that a few initial studies located no sperm,[ ninety two] one study located sperm in 10 of 27 volunteers. The withdrawal technique is used as delivery control with the aid of about three% of coup plotters. Sexual abstinence may be used as a form of delivery control, which means now not conducting sexual hobby, or specially now not having vaginal sex, whilst having other kinds of non-vaginal intercourse.

Complete sexual abstinence prevents being pregnant a hundred%. amongst people who decide to abstaining from premarital intercourse, up to 88% of these who have intercourse before marriage accomplish that.[ ninety eight] selecting now not to have intercourse might not guard in opposition to being pregnant as a consequence of rape, and public fitness efforts that emphasize abstinence to lessen undesirable pregnancies may be of constrained effectiveness, particularly in growing international locations and amongst deprived businesses .

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Intentional non-penetrative intercourse without vaginal intercourse or intentional oral intercourse without vaginal intercourse is also now and again taken into consideration birth control. Whilst this normally prevents being pregnant, being pregnant can still end result from inter curial intercourse and other kinds of penile intercourse near the vagina (genital rubbing and penis emergence from anal sex), where sperm can deposit near the vaginal front. The vagina and may travel along the lubricating fluids of the vagina.

Substitute

Emergency contraceptive strategies are drugs (occasionally incorrectly known as the morning-after tablet) or devices used after unprotected sex in hopes of stopping pregnancy. Rape victims are frequently given emergency birth control. They paintings especially with the aid of stopping ovulation or fertilization. they are not going to affect implantation, but this has no longer been absolutely dominated out. There are numerous options together with excessive dose birth manage capsules, levonorgestrel, Mifepristone, Ulipristal and IUD. Birth Control

Offering girls with emergency contraceptive capsules in advance of schedule does no longer affect fees of sexually transmitted infections, condom use, pregnancy fees, or volatile sexual conduct. All strategies have minimum side consequences. Levonorgestrel capsules, when taken inside 3 days, reduce the danger of pregnancy with the aid of an single episode of unprotected sex or condom failure ( resulting in an 2.2% pregnancy charge).

Ulipristal reduces the danger of pregnancy with the aid of about eighty five% ( pregnancy charge 1. four%) when used inside 5 days and is extra powerful than levonorgestrel. Mifepristone is also extra powerful than levonorgestrel, even as copper IUDs are the most effective technique. Used as much as five days after sex and forestalls about 99% of pregnancies after a episode of unprotected sex (pregnancy charge of 0.1 to 0.2%).

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This makes it the most effective shape of emergency birth control. In obese or obese individuals, levonorgestrel is much less powerful and a IUD or ulipristal is recommended. Double safety is the use of strategies that prevent each sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. This may be completed with condoms on my own or alongside every other technique of birth control, or with the aid of warding off penetrative sex. Birth Control

When pregnancy is a primary subject, it makes feel to apply two strategies at the same time. as an instance, two sorts of birth manage are recommended for the ones taking the pimples drug isotretinoin or antiepileptic drugs inclusive of carbamazepine, because of the excessive chance of birth defects if taken during pregnancy.

Pervasiveness

it’s miles anticipated that using contraceptives in growing international locations has decreased maternal deaths by using 40% (prevented round 270,000 deaths in 2008) and will save you 70% of deaths if the call for full delivery manage have been met executed by using decreasing the wide variety of unplanned pregnancies that later lead to risky abortions and by using preventing pregnancies in excessive- risk ladies. Delivery manage also improves infant survival inside the growing global by using increasing the time between pregnancies. On this populace, consequences are worse if a mom turns into pregnant inside 18 months of a previous transport.

But, postponing any other pregnancy after a miscarriage does now not appear to exchange the risk, and ladies in this example are counseled to try and conceive on every occasion they are prepared. Teenage pregnancies, in particular more youthful teens, are at multiplied risk of unfavorable consequences which include preterm delivery, low delivery weight, and stillbirth.  Inside the USA, 82% of pregnancies between the ages of 15 and 19 are unplanned.

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Complete intercourse training and get entry to contraceptive methods can be powerful in decreasing pregnancy fees on this age group. Contraceptive methods, in particular hormonal methods, can also have unwanted aspect consequences. Reviews. These normally consist of adjustments in menstrual regularity and waft, nausea, breast tenderness, complications, weight gain, and mood swings ( in particular a boom in depression and tension). Birth Control

Further, hormonal delivery manage can make contributions to a loss of bone mineral density, impaired glucose metabolism, and a multiplied risk of venous thromboembolism. .The frequency with which the unique methods are used varies substantially from United States to United States.

The maximum not unusual approach in industrialized international locations is condoms and oral contraceptives, even as in Africa it’s miles oral contraceptives and in Latin the United States and Asia sterilization. inside the growing global as an entire, 35% of delivery manage is by using lady sterilization, 30% by using IUDs, 12% by using oral contraceptives, eleven% by using condoms, and 4% by using male sterilization. Ladies using IUDs numbered more than a hundred and eighty million in 2007.

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About 3.6% of ladies of reproductive age avoid intercourse whilst fertile, with consumption in areas of South the United States as excessive as 20%. As of 2005, 12% of couples use a few male shape of contraception (both condoms and a vasectomy), with better fees in evolved international locations. Using male kinds of contraception has declined between 1985 and 2009. Contraceptives Use among ladies in sub-Saharan Africa has multiplied from approximately five% in 1991 to approximately 30% in 2006.

Types of Birth Control

Numerous types of birth control options should be considered by ladies, men, or couples at some random point in the course of their lives while picking the most proper preventative strategy. These components incorporate wellbeing, viability, accessibility (counting openness and moderateness), and adequacy. Willful educated decision regarding prophylactic strategies is a fundamental core value, and preventative directing, when pertinent, may be a significant supporter of the fruitful utilization of prophylactic techniques.

In picking a technique for contraception, double security from the concurrent gamble for HIV and different STDs likewise ought to be thought of. Albeit hormonal contraceptives and IUDs are exceptionally successful at forestalling pregnancy, they don’t safeguard against STDs, including HIV. Predictable and right utilization of the male plastic condom decreases the gamble for HIV disease and different STDs, including chlamydial contamination, gonococcal disease, and trichomoniasis.

Most women are comfortable and familiar with using the Pill, though this is not always the most reliable method. Other methods known as LARCs or Long Acting Reversible Contraception can protect you for weeks or months at a time without you having to remember to do anything.

You and your health provider can talk about the best contraception for you.

The following is a brief description of all of your contraception choices.

The male condom a type of birth control

The male condom is a fine rubber or synthetic sheath that is worn on a stiff (erect) penis. It collects the sperm and stops them entering your vagina and uterus. You can buy condoms from a chemist or supermarket. Condoms reduce the risk of both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Condoms are 98 per cent effective if they are used correctly.

Diaphragms a type of birth control

A diaphragm is a soft silicone cap worn inside the vagina to cover the entrance to the uterus (the cervix). It stops the sperm from getting into the uterus. A diaphragm can be used at any time, even during your period, and can be washed and used over and over again. A diaphragm has to be put in before having sex (up to 24 hours before) and removed after sex. When used correctly diaphragms are 94 per cent effective at preventing pregnancy.

The Pill type of birth control

Even though we use the expression ‘the Pill’, there are actually two main types of oral contraceptive pills.

The combined pill

This pill has two hormones, which stop the ovaries releasing an egg each month. You still bleed each month but not as much as usual. The combined pill can also bring relief for acne and premenstrual syndrome. Some women will have side-effects such as bloating, nausea, and minor weight gain. The combined pill is 99.7 per cent effective with perfect use.

The progestogen-only pill

(Mini pill or POP)

This pill has only one hormone and works by changing the mucus at the entrance to the womb (uterus) so that sperm cannot pass through to fertilize the egg.

The progestogen-only pill is different to the combined pill because it doesn’t stop ovulation. The POP is 99.7 per cent effective with perfect use.

If mistakes happen, such as missed pills, around one in ten women may get pregnant.

The vaginal ring a type of birth control

The vaginal ring contains the same two hormones that are in some types of the Pill.  It works in the same way as the Pill to prevent an egg being released each month.  The ring is placed high in the vagina and left in place for three weeks.  It is removed for one week to allow you to have a regular monthly bleed.  The vaginal ring is 99.7 per cent effective with perfect use. Like the Pill, 1 in 10 women (10 per cent) using a vaginal ring may get pregnant.

Emergency pill a type of birth control

(Sometimes called the ‘morning after pill’)

If you had sex without contraception, or you were using a condom that broke, you can take an emergency pill, which will prevent a pregnancy from happening.

Emergency pills are available from the chemist with no prescription. They must be started within three days (72 hours) after unprotected sex and they work best if taken as soon as possible after sex.

The contraceptive injection a type of birth control

DMPA (also called Depo Provera or Depo Ralovera) is an injection of a long-acting synthetic hormone. Women have the injection every 12 weeks for contraception. It can be used when breastfeeding. Some women will have side-effects, such as mood changes, tummy discomfort and headaches, which can last for up to 12 weeks.  Depo Provera is 99.8 per cent effective with perfect use.

Contraceptive skin implant

This is a small plastic rod, which is inserted underneath the skin on the inside of the upper arm. It slowly releases the synthetic hormone progestogen, which stops the ovaries releasing an egg each month. Most women will have a different bleeding pattern and some stop bleeding altogether. Some women will notice skin changes, mood changes or minor weight gain. It will last for three years and is a very effective method for preventing pregnancy (99.95per cent effective).

Intra Uterine Device (IUD)

This is a small contraceptive device that is placed in your uterus. There are two kinds of IUD:

Copper IUD – lasts five to ten years and is 99.4 per cent effective

Progestogen IUD – a type of birth control which is for, five years and is 99.8 per cent effective.

The IUD affects sperm movement and survival in the uterus (womb) so that they cannot reach the egg to fertilize it. The IUD also changes the lining of the womb (endometrium) so that it is not suitable for pregnancy. This prevents a fertilized egg from developing.

It is very effective long-term contraception.

Sterilization a type of birth control

Both men and women can have an operation to make them sterile. The woman’s operation involves blocking the fallopian tubes. It is done through the abdomen and is called a tubal occlusion and tubal ligation. The male operation is called a vasectomy. The operations are more than 99 per cent effective and are permanent. This method is for people who have already had all the children they want.

There are also now tiny inserts that can be placed inside a woman’s tubes by means of a special instrument. This procedure is done through the vagina and can be done while the woman is awake.

Natural types of birth control

The rhythm or Billings methods, fertility awareness, mucus, ovulation and temperature methods all provide ways for your to monitor where you are at in your cycle and when you are fertile. These methods are most effective when you have regular periods.  If they are done perfectly these methods are between 95 to 99.6 per cent effective. However, 5 in 20 women (25 per cent) may get pregnant using these methods.

Withdrawal a type of birth control

This is when the man takes his penis out of the vagina before he ejaculates and sperm is released from the penis. Which a type of birth controlThis doesn’t work if he forgets to withdraw his penis or is not quick enough. Also there may be some sperm in the pre-ejaculate (fluid that comes out of his penis before he ejaculates). If he ejaculates at the entrance to the vagina some sperm may still swim inside and a woman could still get pregnant with this method.  Perfect use of the withdrawal method is 96 per cent effective. Approximately 2 in 10 women get pregnant using this method of contraception.

Permanent types of Birth Control

Male and female permanent type of birth control

Female Sterilization—Tubal ligation or “tying tubes”— A woman can have her fallopian tubes tied (or closed) so that sperm and eggs cannot meet for fertilization. The procedure can be done in a hospital or in an outpatient surgical center. You can go home the same day of the surgery and resume your normal activities within a few days. This method is effective immediately. Typical use failure rate: 0.5%.1

Male Sterilization–Vasectomy a type of birth control

This operation is done to keep a man’s sperm from going to his penis, so his ejaculate never has any sperm in it that can fertilize an egg. The procedure is typically done at an outpatient surgical center. The man can go home the same day. Recovery time is less than one week. After the operation, a man visits his doctor for tests to count his sperm and to make sure the sperm count has dropped to zero; this takes about 12 weeks. Another form of birth control should be used until the man’s sperm count has dropped to zero. Typical use failure rate: 0.15%.1

Emergency Contraception a type of birth control

Emergency contraception is NOT a regular type of birth control. Emergency contraception can be used after no birth control was used during sex, or if the birth control method failed, such as if a condom broke.

Emergency contraception a type of birth control

Copper IUD—Women can have the copper T IUD inserted within five days of unprotected sex.

Emergency contraceptive pills type of birth control

Women can take emergency contraceptive pills which is a type of birth control up to 5 days after unprotected sex, but the sooner the pills are taken, the better they will work. There are three different types of emergency contraceptive pills available in the United States. Some emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter.

Fertility Awareness-Based Methods type of birth control

Understanding your monthly fertility pattern external a type of birth control icon external icon can help you plan to get pregnant or avoid getting pregnant. Your fertility pattern is the number of days in the month when you are fertile (able to get pregnant), days when you are infertile, and days when fertility is unlikely, but possible. If you have a regular menstrual cycle, you have about nine or more fertile days each month. If you do not want to get pregnant, you do not have sex on the days you are fertile, or you use a barrier method of birth control on those days. Failure rates vary across these methods.1-2 Range of typical use failure rates: 2-23%.1

Lactation amenorrhea method Type of Birth Control

For women who have recently had a baby and are breastfeeding, the Lactation Amenorrhea Method (LAM)  a type of birth control can be used as birth control when three conditions are met: 1) amenorrhea (not having any menstrual periods after delivering a baby), 2) fully or nearly fully breastfeeding, and 3) less than 6 months after delivering a baby. LAM is a temporary method of birth control, and another birth control method must be used when any of the three conditions are not met.

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